Friday Hope: N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) Revisited: Taming the ROS Storm
The Oxygen Radical Removal Specialist
We have long known of the cytokine and bradykinin storms associated with the severity and mortality of COVID-19. However, as my research began to reveal, I believe these are secondary to the main culprit in COVID-19 and Spike Protein pathology: The Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Storm.
Indeed, this has been hypothesized by others.
Previous studies highlighted the significance of a cytokine storm to the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and more recently, the possibility of another storm, the bradykinin one, also contributing to the widespread tissue damage observed in some COVID-19 patients, involving those with hypertension comorbidity. Under these unprecedented conditions, there is yet, another equally relevant, still overlooked, storm on the forecast for hypertension: the reactive oxygen species (ROS) storm.
COVID-19 and ROS Storm: What is the Forecast for Hypertension
One of the key mediators of cytokines/chemokines induction is NF-κB. The pathway of this transcription factor is directly activated by ROS and by certain proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β.
Oxidative Stress-Related Mechanisms in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Note the induction of all the severe and fatal COVID-19 pathologies by ROS:
Therefore, we propose a hypothesis based on strong scientific documentation, associating oxidative stress with changes found in patients with COVID-19, such as its participation in the amplification and perpetuation of the cytokine storm, coagulopathy, and cell hypoxia.
SARS-CoV-2 infection pathogenesis is related to oxidative stress as a response to aggression
This is where NAC enters the picture.
It acts directly as a scavenger of free radicals, especially oxygen radicals. NAC is a powerful antioxidant. It is also recommended as a potential treatment option for different disorders resulted from generation of free oxygen radicals.
A Review on Various Uses of N-Acetyl Cysteine
What I put forth is that stopping the production of ROS by SARS-CoV-2 (obviously including the Spike Protein) will mitigate the severity and mortality of COVID-19. Even more encouraging is that NAC is plentiful and inexpensive.
N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), as a safe and inexpensive medication, is commercially accessible since long-time ago. This drug is not found in natural sources, although cysteine is present in some meals like chicken and turkey meats, garlic, yogurt, and eggs. NAC is a well-tolerated mucolytic drug that moderates clinging mucous secretions and enhances glutathione S-transferase activity. During oral administration, deacetylation reaction of NAC happens while passing along the small intestine as well as liver, thus its bioavailability is decreased to 4-10%. NAC stimulates glutathione biosynthesis, promotes detoxification, and acts directly as a scavenger of free radicals. It is a powerful antioxidant and a potential treatment option for diseases characterized by the generation of free oxygen radicals.
A Review on Various Uses of N-Acetyl Cysteine
I believe, especially given that we now have a better understanding of the mechanisms SARS-CoV-2 and its Spike Protein, that NAC should be trialed for those with COVID, Long COVID and Spike Protein pathologies. It may even be effective as a prophylaxis.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is inexpensive, has very low toxicity, has been FDA approved for many years, and has the potential to improve therapeutic strategies for COVID-19. NAC administered intravenously, orally, or inhaled, may suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication and may improve outcomes if used timely. Potential therapeutic benefits of NAC include, extracellularly scavenging ROS radicals, replenishing intracellular GSH, suppression of cytokine storm, and T cell protection, thus mitigating inflammation and tissue injury. NAC administration in combination with other antiviral agents may dramatically reduce hospital admission rate, mechanical ventilation and mortality.
N-Acetylcysteine to Combat COVID-19: An Evidence Review
NAC has the potential to be one of our most effective weapons against SARS-CoV-2 and its Spike Protein.
WMC Research is a reader-supported publication. To receive new posts and support my work, consider becoming a free or paid subscriber. Or, please donate via PayPal at https://wmcresearch.org/donate/
Perhaps it should be combined with glycine for even better results?
 "Severe Glutathione Deficiency, Oxidative Stress and Oxidant Damage in Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19: Implications for GlyNAC (Glycine and N-Acetylcysteine) Supplementation"
 "Supplementing Glycine and N-Acetylcysteine (GlyNAC) in Older Adults Improves Glutathione Deficiency, Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Inflammation, Physical Function, and Aging Hallmarks: A Randomized Clinical Trial"
 "GlyNAC (Glycine and N-Acetylcysteine) Supplementation in Mice Increases Length of Life by Correcting Glutathione Deficiency, Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Abnormalities in Mitophagy and Nutrient Sensing, and Genomic Damage"
 "Glycine and N-acetylcysteine (GlyNAC) supplementation in older adults improves glutathione deficiency, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, genotoxicity, muscle strength, and cognition: Results of a pilot clinical trial"
 "Supplementing Glycine and N-acetylcysteine (GlyNAC) in Aging HIV Patients Improves Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Inflammation, Endothelial Dysfunction, Insulin Resistance, Genotoxicity, Strength, and Cognition: Results of an Open-Label Clinical Trial"
 "The powerful effects of GlyNAC - Genoprotective, mitochondria fixing!"
Your hope posts are just as awesome and detailed as your research posts. Always an interesting read