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Fasting and Metformin: Two Effective Remyelination Strategies
Combating the Spike Protein’s assault on the Endothelium as Stage 1 of a Demyelination Disease.
Let’s begin by reminding ourselves that the Spike Protein attacks the Endothelium. This is now a universally accepted fact and evidence is abundant.
The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 induces endothelial inflammation through integrin α5β1 and NF-κB signaling
We are all too familiar with the organ damage that can and does occur due to the Spike Protein and its interaction with the Endothelium. However, when it comes to the Brain, it has a particular cascading effect, which can damage the cells that create Myelin – the substance that sheaths our nerve cells.
Endothelial dysfunction and pericyte loss are associated with the cerebral influx and accumulation of toxic constituents of the plasma, such as fibrinogen, leading to oligodendrocyte damage and myelin loss.
Cognitive impact of COVID-19: looking beyond the short term
There is evidence of SARS-CoV-2 causing demyelination – sometimes immediate and dramatic.
While the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 on cells of the oligodendrocytic lineage responsible for myelination remain unclear, COVID-19 resulted in several cases of demyelinating Guillain-Barré syndrome (Arnaud et al., 2020; Padroni et al., 2020; Sedaghat and Karimi, 2020; Tiet and AlShaikh, 2020; Zhao et al., 2020) and Miller-Fisher syndrome (Gutierrez-Ortiz et al., 2020). Similarly, other recent viral outbreaks were associated with increased cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other demyelinating conditions (Beghi et al., 2020). Studies using other coronaviruses, such as herpes virus, revealed that cells of the oligodendrocytic lineage can be infected, yet they survived and contributed to sustaining neuroinflammation (Pan et al., 2020). These effects could be exerted in concert with microglia and astrocytes, as well as regulated by the exposure to peripheral stimuli and other external influences. Astrocytes regulate the activity and reactivity of microglia, and vice versa, microglia can regulate the activity and reactivity of astrocytes, also with consequences on cells of the oligodendrocytic lineage. Glial cells are thus orchestrating together the brain health and its response to systemic and local pathology (Pascual et al., 2012; Rothhammer et al., 2018; Jay et al., 2019; Vainchtein and Molofsky, 2020).
Neuropathobiology of COVID-19: The Role for Glia
If you read my recent posts, I provide a hypothesis demonstrating how this damage may be ultimately responsible for Long COVID and many of the Sudden Cardiac Deaths being observed.
Operating on the assumption that we are, indeed, in the midst of a global demyelination epidemic, we need therapeutics to combat this pathology. Interestingly, two therapies appear to induce remyelination and can potentially help those with Long COVID, active COVID infection and Spike Protein disease/damage.
Fasting and Metformin are both highly effective in remyelinating nerves. What’s even more fascinating is that the young remyelinate extremely well. This may account for the low incidence of Long COVID and mild disease in the young.
Several pathways change with ageing, including pathways associated with nutrient signalling, which prompted us to examine the effects of calorie restriction (CR) by intermittent fasting, a well-established modulator of ageing, on remyelination in aged animals. We found that fasting had a profound effect, enabling aged animals to remyelinate with the efficiency of young adults. Most intriguingly, we found that this rejuvenation of remyelination can be phenocopied with the 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist and widely prescribed drug, metformin.
Remyelination and ageing: Reversing the ravages of time
I urge clinicians and research institutes to commence trials and studies to determine the presence and extent of demyelination in all COVID/Spike related illnesses, and to determine the effectiveness of fasting and metformin on these conditions.
Immense gratitude for your continued support. Blessings and a hopeful weekend to all.
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