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Friday Hope: Niclosamide: Therapeutic Evidence for Treating Acute COVID and Potential Evidence for Treating Long COVID
Niclosamide inhibits the fusogenicity of the Spike Protein, which may drive Long COVID neurological symptoms.
Potential mechanisms of antiviral activity have been illustrated in this figure. These include (i) endosomal pH neutralization to prevent viral replication, (ii) promotion of autophagy via inhibition of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2), (iii) decreased mucus plugging via inhibition of TMEM16A (calcium activated chloride channel; CaCC) and (iv) prevention of syncytia formation by ion channel inhibition. Abbreviation: BCN1, beclin-1; ATG14, autophagy related 14; SARS-COV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2.
Readers may recall that several weeks ago I hypothesized that the fusogenicity of the Spike Protein may be behind the non-myocarditis sudden cardiac deaths we have been observing. Interestingly, a paper was published yesterday finding that neurons in the brain are indeed being fused by the Spike Protein.
“We discovered COVID-19 causes neurons to undergo a cell fusion process, which has not been seen before,” Professor Hilliard said. “After neuronal infection with SARS-CoV-2, the spike S protein becomes present in neurons, and once neurons fuse, they don’t die. They either start firing synchronously, or they stop functioning altogether.”
As an analogy, Professor Hilliard likened the role of neurons to that of wires connecting switches to the lights in a kitchen and a bathroom.
“Once fusion takes place, each switch either turns on both the kitchen and bathroom lights at the same time, or neither of them,” he said. “It’s bad news for the two independent circuits.”
COVID-19 Causes Brain Cell Fusion, Leading to Chronic Neurological Symptoms
I immediately began to look for solutions to this problem. I was able to find one pharmaceutical which is Niclosamide.
The above studies show several plausible mechanisms of action of niclosamide against COVID-19, including prevention of viral entry, prevention of viral replication via autophagy inhibition and, finally, inhibition of spike-driven syncytia formation. Importantly, unlike vaccines or monoclonal antibodies, the host-directed mechanism of action of niclosamide means its antiviral efficacy is less likely to be affected by the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, as has been shown for the Alpha, Beta and Delta variant by Weiss et al. (2021).
Niclosamide—A promising treatment for COVID-19
Please read the above referenced article, as it details the many ways Niclosamide treats COVID-19.
What I find most fascinating about Niclosamide is that it is another anti-parasitic! And, it truly is a wonder drug when it comes to dealing with the mechanisms of COVID-19 and its Spike Protein.
Niclosamide is an oral antihelminthic drug used to treat parasitic infections in millions of people worldwide. However recent studies have indicated that niclosamide may have broad clinical applications for the treatment of diseases other than those caused by parasites. These diseases and symptoms may include cancer, bacterial and viral infection, metabolic diseases such as Type II diabetes, NASH and NAFLD, artery constriction, endometriosis, neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease, and systemic sclerosis. Among the underlying mechanisms associated with the drug actions of niclosamide are uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, and modulation of Wnt/β-catenin, mTORC1, STAT3, NF-κB and Notch signaling pathways.
Niclosamide: Beyond an antihelminthic drug
We need trials and studies to determine the efficacy of this drug in treating Acute COVID, Long COVID and Spike Protein Disease. It may indeed prove to be very beneficial. I urge clinicians to consider its use.
As always, thank you for your continued support. May this post bring a bit of light into your Friday, and may you have a blessed and peaceful weekend.
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